Longitudinal studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging in first-episode psychosis: A systematic review
Carlos González-Vivas, Pau Soldevila-Matías, Olga Sparano, Gracián García-Martí, Luís Martí-Bonmatí, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, André Aleman, Julio Sanjuan.
European Psychiatry. The Journal of the European Psychiatric Association.
Little is known about changes in brain functioning after first-episode psychosis (FEP). Such knowledge is important for predicting the course of disease and adapting interventions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has become a promising tool for exploring brain function at the time of symptom onset and at follow-up.
A systematic review of longitudinal fMRI studies with FEP patients according to PRISMA guidelines. Resting-state and task-activated studies were considered together.
Eleven studies were included. These reported on a total of 236 FEP patients were evaluated by two fMRI scans and clinical assessments. Five studies found hypoactivation at baseline in prefrontal cortex areas, two studies found hypoactivation in the amygdala and hippocampus, and three others found hypoactivation in the basal ganglia. Other hypoactivated areas were the anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex. Ten out of eleven studies reported (partial) normalization by increased activation after antipsychotic treatment. A minority of studies observed hyperactivation at baseline.
This review of longitudinal FEP samples studies reveals a pattern of predominantly hypoactivation in several brain areas at baseline that may normalize to a certain extent after treatment. The results should be interpreted with caution given the small number of studies and their methodological and clinical heterogeneity.
González-Vivas C, Soldevila-Matías P, Separan O, et al.
Longitudinal studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging in firstepisode psychosis: A systematic review.
Eur Psychiatry. 2019 Jun;59:60-69.